Introduction | Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones |

  • Important bio-molecule’s .
  • Are the main source of energy
  • Required for metabolic activities.
  • Plants are about 30 times richer in carbohydrates than in animals.
  • Also known as saccharides because of many of carbohydrates of small molecular weight have sweet taste.

The latest definition is,

 “ Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones and their derivatives or the substance that generate them on hydrolysis.”

Types of Carbohydrates

  • Monosaccharide
  • Disaccharide
  • Oligosaccharide
  • Polysaccharide


  • Cannot be hydrolyzed into smaller units.
  • Simplest of the carbohydrate
  • Subunit form which disaccharides, oligosaccharide and polysaccharides are constructed.
  • Two types
  • Depending upon the carbon atom present
  • On the basic of functional group present


  • Consist of two mono saccharides unit joined together by covalent bond.
  • Present O – glycosidic bond .
  • Such as maltose , sucrose , lactose etc. are medically important.

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