Introduction | Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones |

Important bio-molecule’s . Are the main source of energy Required for metabolic activities. Plants are about 30 times richer in carbohydrates than in animals. Also known as saccharides because of many of carbohydrates of small molecular weight have sweet taste. The latest definition is,  “ Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones and their derivatives or … Read more

Molecular Propellers | Stereochemistry |

are a kind of atropisomerism. called molecular propeller because of their analogy with the propellers of airplanes or boat molecules of this type – consist of two or more subunits. – radiating from the axis of rotation – which my be single or combination of atoms. if the blades or subunits are identical in structure … Read more

Allenes Chemistry And Stereochemistry – 1

The Molecule with no chiral center but chiral are called allenes, cumulenes with even no of double bonds. Biphenyls and similar compounds in which chirality is due to the restricted rotation of single bonds. Allenes, alkylidenes cycloalkanes, biphenyls, and so on are said to possess a chiral axis if we stretch a tetrahedron along its … Read more

Nuclear Over Houser Effect ( NOE)

Discovered by – Albert Overhouser 1953 It is defined as the change in the intensity of one spin when the transition of another nucleus is perturbed from the equilibrium population. Nuclear spin that is coupled – gives rise to nuclear over houser effect. Through space, the coupling is also called dipolar coupling. It depends on … Read more

Chemical formula And Their Uses

Epsom salt : MgSO4 . 7H20 used in dye , used in industry , tanning industry , dressing for cotton goods. 2. Plaster of Paris: CaSo4. 1/2 H20 used in surgical bandages plastering broken or fractured bones. 3. Quick Lime: CaO used in building constructions as a mortar. 4. Plaster of Paris: CaSO4. 2H2O used … Read more

What volume of CO2 will be delivered at NTP to extinguish the fire from a cylinder of 10 L? ( It contains 5Kg CO2 gas )

Here, mass of CO2 = 5kg = 5 × 1000 = 5000 g Also we know that At STP , 44 g of CO2 will produce 22.4 L of CO2 gas. 5000g of CO2 will produce (22.4 × 5000 ) / 44 L of CO2 gas = 2545.45 L The volume of CO2 that will … Read more

Mass Spectroscopy | BSc & MSc

Mass spectroscopy is not a true spectroscopic technique because the absorption of electromagnetic energy is not involved in any way, although the output from the instrument has all other spectroscopic characteristics. In this spectroscopic technique, organic molecules are bombarded with electrons and converted to highly energetic positively charged ions, which can break up into smaller … Read more

Nuclear Over Hauser and Exchange Spectroscopy (NOESY) | BSc |MSc

It records all the proton-proton NOE’S occurring in a molecule in a single spectrum. it appears like 1H – 1H COSY spectrum. where as orthogonal axis is of the proton chemical shiftand the normal spectrum appears on the diagonal. NOESY is a space phenomena rather than bond interaction. NOESY spectrum provides information about geometry of … Read more

2D – NMR | Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy | BSc & MSc |

[Enter Post Title Here] 2D NMR spectroscopy referred to both frequency axes. It is actually a 3D plot. It requires two Fourier transformations at right angle to each other – two independent time axes to arrive at two orthogonal frequency axes. In this, multiple pulse sequence are considered:- Equilibrated period is followed by two pulses … Read more