1. State: The lower member of alcohols are usually colourless liquids whereas higher members are usually colourless and odourless solids. 2.Solubility: Alcohols are soluble in water. This is due to the hydroxyl group in the alcohol, which is able to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules and their decline solubility is due to the increase in … Read more

Types of Alcohol

1) Absolute alcohol: Absolute alcohol is a common name for the chemical compound ethanol. To qualify as “absolute,” the ethyl alcohol must contain no more than one percent water. In other words, absolute alcohol is liquid alcohol that is at least 99 percent pure alcohol by weight and it is preparedby two method: Azeotropic distillation: a) … Read more

Distinction of Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols by Victor Meyers Method

Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be distinguished by the following methods: 1.Victor Meyer’s Method   2. Lucas’s test 3. Oxidation Test 1. Victor Meyer’s Method: This is the well-known method to distinguish 1⁰, 2 ⁰ and 3 ⁰ alcohols by using different reagents and colour formation. Firstly, given alcohol is treated with red P4 and … Read more

Nitrogen in ammonia is sp3 hybridized but the ammonia molecule has trigonal pyramid geometry. Give reason

Ans. In NH3 molecule, the central atom of nitrogen has three unpaired electrons in the ground state. The nitrogen atom then undergoes sp3 hybridization and forms four sp3 hybrid orbitals. The three sp3 hybrid orbitals overlap with three s orbitals of hydrogen atom while the fourth hybrid orbital contains lone pair of electrons and does … Read more

Periodic Table | Properties | Terms

s & p – block elements are also called representative elements f – block elements – Lanthanides and actinides d block – transistion elements Typical elements – Li to F Transuranic elements – Artificial elements ( At. no > 93 (Np) Group VA / 15 – Nitrogen family – Pnicogenes – suffocating agents Group VA … Read more

What is the oxidation state of potassium in potassium chromate?

Ans: Chemical Formula of potassium chromate is K2Cr2O7 Let x be the oxidation number of Chromium (Cr) Also, we know, the oxidation state of potassium is +1 The oxidation state of oxygen is – 2 . According to the rule ; (+1) × 2 + x + (- 2 ) × 4 = 0 +2 … Read more

Mass Spectroscopy | BSc & MSc

Mass spectroscopy is not a true spectroscopic technique because the absorption of electromagnetic energy is not involved in any way, although the output from the instrument has all other spectroscopic characteristics. In this spectroscopic technique, organic molecules are bombarded with electrons and converted to highly energetic positively charged ions, which can break up into smaller … Read more

Nuclear Over Hauser and Exchange Spectroscopy (NOESY) | BSc |MSc

It records all the proton-proton NOE’S occurring in a molecule in a single spectrum. it appears like 1H – 1H COSY spectrum. where as orthogonal axis is of the proton chemical shiftand the normal spectrum appears on the diagonal. NOESY is a space phenomena rather than bond interaction. NOESY spectrum provides information about geometry of … Read more

Williamson’s Ether Synthesis | Organic Chemistry |

Alcohol in reaction with active metal sodium gives sodium alkoxide. sodium alkoxide on reaction with an alkyl halide gives ether. It is known as Williamson’s ether synthesis helps to synthesize aliphatic, aromatic, symmetrical, unsymmetrical ethers. ROH + Na         =                    RONa + ½ H2 RONa + R – X      =                R – O – R + NaX RONa … Read more