1. State: The lower member of alcohols are usually colourless liquids whereas higher members are usually colourless and odourless solids. 2.Solubility: Alcohols are soluble in water. This is due to the hydroxyl group in the alcohol, which is able to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules and their decline solubility is due to the increase in … Read more

Types of Alcohol

1) Absolute alcohol: Absolute alcohol is a common name for the chemical compound ethanol. To qualify as “absolute,” the ethyl alcohol must contain no more than one percent water. In other words, absolute alcohol is liquid alcohol that is at least 99 percent pure alcohol by weight and it is preparedby two method: Azeotropic distillation: a) … Read more

Chiroptical properties

are the properties of chiral substances – arising from their non-destructive interaction – with anisotropic refraction. is a properties that can differentiate between the two enantiomers of chiral compound. Scopes are : qualitative and quantitative determination of chirality of molecules. Widespread application of another chiroptical technique, circular dichroism. Vibrational CD and its counter part in … Read more

Monosaccharide | Types | carbohydrates |

Cannot be hydrolyzed into smaller units. Simplest of the carbohydrate Subunit from which disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides are constructed. Two types a)Depending upon the carbon atom present b)On the basis of the functional group present Physical properties of Monosaccharide Compounds are generally crystalline solids with a high melting point, very soluble in water, more or … Read more

Introduction | Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones |

Important bio-molecule’s . Are the main source of energy Required for metabolic activities. Plants are about 30 times richer in carbohydrates than in animals. Also known as saccharides because of many of carbohydrates of small molecular weight have sweet taste. The latest definition is,  “ Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones and their derivatives or … Read more

Allenes Chemistry And Stereochemistry – 1

The Molecule with no chiral center but chiral are called allenes, cumulenes with even no of double bonds. Biphenyls and similar compounds in which chirality is due to the restricted rotation of single bonds. Allenes, alkylidenes cycloalkanes, biphenyls, and so on are said to possess a chiral axis if we stretch a tetrahedron along its … Read more

Nuclear Over Houser Effect ( NOE)

Discovered by – Albert Overhouser 1953 It is defined as the change in the intensity of one spin when the transition of another nucleus is perturbed from the equilibrium population. Nuclear spin that is coupled – gives rise to nuclear over houser effect. Through space, the coupling is also called dipolar coupling. It depends on … Read more

Periodic Table | Properties | Terms

s & p – block elements are also called representative elements f – block elements – Lanthanides and actinides d block – transistion elements Typical elements – Li to F Transuranic elements – Artificial elements ( At. no > 93 (Np) Group VA / 15 – Nitrogen family – Pnicogenes – suffocating agents Group VA … Read more

Facts in Periodic Table

Lightest metal – Li Lightest gas – H Metalloid – Ga , In , Ge , As , Sb. Liquid radioactive element – Francium Liquid non metal – Br2 Solid non metal – B , C , Si , P , S , I . Non metal sublimate – I2 Gaseous non metal – N … Read more